The 14 main allergens

The term allergen(s) within the meaning of this information means, in its broadest sense, allergens and also any other substances which may cause intolerances. The 14 main allergens are dealt with more precisely below:

SUBSTANCES OR PRODUCTS THAT, according to the Regulation on Food Information mentioned, CAUSE ALLERGIES OR INTOLERANCES  Source




A



1. Cereals containing gluten

namely wheat, rye, barley, oats, spelt, kamut or hybridised strains of the latter, as well as products made therefrom, except for

  • glucose syrups based on wheat, including dextrose (*)
  • Maltodextrine based on wheat (*)
  • Glucose syrups based on barley
  • Cereals for manufacturing alcoholic distillates, including ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin

These also include:
Khorasan wheat, emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, unripe spelt grain, triticale (wheat and rye hybrids)

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Flour, flakes, semolina, bran, malt, groats, starch, pearl barley, bulghur wheat, couscous, wheat sprouts, wheat germ oil, coarse-grained wheat flour, polenta, bread and pastries, cake, noodles pasta, pancakes, soups, sauces, breadcrumbs, breadcrumb coating, fine breadcrumbs, sausage products, ready-made potato dishes, fried batter pearls, fresh grain porridge, desserts, chocolate, muesli, baking mixes, tarts, cakes, biscuits, cookies, malt, malt beer, beer, grain coffee (malt coffee), roux, fried batter pearls, cocoa-based beverages, seasonings, soy sauce, hydrolysed wheat protein in condiments, bars of chocolate, muesli bars, ice-cream with wafers, separating agents in grated cheese, national/regional sausage specialities, e.g. D: Kaszanka, black pudding, schuesselwurst sausage, wellwurst sausage, Knipp, Pinkel (smoked Kaszanka), AT: bratleberwurst fried sausage, bratblutwurst fried black pudding, Carinthian white sausage, maischerl (meat balls Carinthian style) UK: Haggis, black and white pudding




B



2. Shellfish and products made from them

These include:

Crayfish, shrimps, prawns, spiny lobster, lobster, scampi, edible crabs, crabs, krill, spider crab

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Shrimps paste, other Asian seasoning pastes, delicatessen salads, soups, sauces, paella, Marseille fish soup, sashimi, surimi, crab butter, Kroepoek




C



3. Eggs and products made from them

These include:

Eggs from poultry: hen, turkey, goose, duck, quail, pigeon and ostrich

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Egg-based pasta, breaded meals, mayonnaise, pancakes, omelette, cake, pastries, bread, pasta, croutons, meat loaves, burgers, products with a batter or breadcrumb coating, ready-made potato products, gourmet salads, pâtés, quiches, sauces (e.g. sauce hollandaise, sauce béarnaise), dressings, desserts, e.g.. mousse, ice-cream, blancmange, creamy desserts, meringue, wine, liqueur, Ovaltine, Simplesse, sponge fingers/lady fingers, meringue, tarts, cakes, pastries, froths and toppings for speciality coffees, mayonnaise sauces, “glues” for grains and decorations on bread and baked goods, sugar icing, advocaat and other liqueurs, egg-based pasta, surimi




D



4. Fish and products made from them, except for

  • Fish gelatine that is used as a carrier substance for vitamin or carotenoid preparations
  • Fish gelatine or isinglass that is used as a clarifying agent in beer and wine

These include:

All types of fish, caviar, fish spawn

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Omega3 oil, fish gelatine, fish extract, fish sauce, anchovies, Anchovy pâté, crackers, sauces (e.g. Worcester sauce), meat stocks, soups, spice pastes, sausage, anchovy sausage, sandwich spreads, gourmet salads, pies and pastries, vitello tonnato, surimi, kamaboko




E



5. Peanuts and products made from them

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Roasted peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, peanut flour, margarine, bread, cake, pastries, chocolate cream, vegetarian sandwich spreads, cereals, muesli, breakfast flakes, chocolate, gourmet salads, marinades, satay sauce, ice-cream, flavoured coffee, liqueur, food fried in peanut oil (chips), vegetarian meat substitutes, nut mixtures, trail mix




F



6. Soya beans and products made from them, except for

  • completely refined soybean oil and fat (*)
  • naturally blended tocopherols (E306), natural D-alpha tocopherol, natural D-alpha tocopheryl acetate, natural D-alpha-tocopherol succinate made from soybean sources
  • Phytosterols and phytosterol esters derived from vegetable oils from soybean sources
  • Phytostanol esters derived from vegetable oil sterols from soybean sources

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
All kinds of soya beans, edamame, kinako, miso, natto, okara, shoyu, soya drinks, soya flakes, soya flour, soya oil, soybean paste, soy sauce, soy sprouts, unrefined soya oil, soy protein, tamari, tempeh, tofu, TVP (Textured Vegetable Protein = meat substitute), E 322 lecithin (soya), E 426 soybean hemicellulose, tofu skinbread, cake, pastries, gourmet salads, margarine, chocolate cream, vegetarian sandwich spreads, muesli, chocolate, biscuits, chewing gum, sauces, dressings, marinades, mayonnaise, ice-cream, foodstuffs for athletes, protein-enriched soft drinks, diet drinks, coffee whitener, ready-to-serve meals of all kinds, condiments (soya, shoyu, tamari, teriyaki and Worcester sauces), vegetarian dishes, surimi, burgers, sausage products, light mincemeat preparations/light preparations for mincemeat




G



7. Milk and products made from it (including lactose), except for

Whey for manufacturing alcoholic distillates, including ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin

  • Whey for manufacturing alcoholic distillates, including ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin
  • Lactite

These include:

Milk from mammals such as cows, buffalos, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Butter, buttermilk, clarified butter (ghee, niter kibbeh), creme fraiche, sour milk, yoghurt, casein(ates), cheese, lactalbumin, lactoglobulin, skimmed milk, curdled milk, milk protein, milk protein hydrolysates, casein, whey proteins, milk sugar (lactose), milk, dried milk, whey, cream, sour cream, crème fraîche, sour milk, evaporated milk, yoghurt, kefir, cheese, quark/curd cheese




H



8. Edible nuts

notably almonds (Amygdalus communis L.), hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), walnuts (Juglans regia), cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale), pecan nuts (Carya illinoiesis (Wangenh.) K. Koch), brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), pistachios (Pistacia vera), macadamia or Queensland nuts (Macadamia ternifolia), as well as products derived therefrom, except for nuts for manufacturing alcoholic distillates, including ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Ground nuts, flaked nuts, etc., nut pastes, nut creams, roasted nuts, nut oils, bread, tarts, cake, pastries, boiled sausages (pistachios), raw sausages (walnuts), pâtés, gourmet salads (Waldorf salad), yoghurt, cheese, nut/nougat cream, vegetarian spreads, muesli, chocolate, marzipan, muesli bars, biscuits, dressings, curry, pesto, desserts, liqueur, flavoured coffee specialities, pesto and other sauces, salad dressings, vegetarian dishes




L



9. Celery and products made from them

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Ribbed or stalk celery, celeriac, vegetable juices with celery, celery seeds, celery leaves, celery juice, celery powder (also in spices/herb mixtures), celery salt, soup greens, spice bread, sausage, meat products, meat preparations, herb cheese, ready-to-serve meals, gourmet salads, potato salad, broth, bouillon cubes, soups, stew, marinades, spice mixtures, curry, salty and piquant snacks (crisps)




M



10. Mustard and products made from it

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?

Mustard seeds, mustard powder, mustard, mustard oil, mustard sprouts, mustard leaves and flowers, meat products, meat preparations, ready-to-serve meals, gourmet salads, soups, sauces, dressings, mayonnaise, ketchup, pickled vegetables and spice mixtures, cheese, gherkins, roulades, curries, sour pickled vegetables, marinades, chutneys, gourmet salads




N



11. Sesame seeds and products made from them

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Sesame seeds, sesame flour, sesame paste (tahini), sesame salt (gomashio), sesame oil, sesame butter, sesame flourbread, crispbread, pastries (sweet and salty), muesli, vegetarian dishes, falafel, salads, hummus, gourmet salads, marinades, desserts, hamburger buns, crackers, breakfast cereals, sweet desserts, Turkish, Oriental and Asian cuisine, moutabel




O



12. Sulphur dioxide and sulphites

E220 to 228 – SO2 present in total concentrations of over 10 mg/kg or 10 mg/l, which are to be calculated for ready-to-serve products or products reverted to their original state in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
Dried fruit treated with sulphur, dried vegetables, mushrooms, tomato purée, potato products, wine, beer, fruit preparations, muesli, bread, meat products and preparations, gourmet salads, soups, sauces, sauerkraut, fruit juice, crisps and other dried potato products, salted dried fish, wine (sulphurised), other alcoholic drinks, dried fruits (especially those that are supposed to remain light in colour), grated horseradish products; smaller quantities, e.g. instant mashed potatoes often contain quantities below the amount that it is obligatory to declare




P



13. Lupins and products made from them

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?

Lupin flour, lupin protein, lupin concentrate, lupin isolate, alfalfa sprouts, vegetable protein in baked goods and vegetarian meat substitutes, bread, pastries, pizza, noodles, snacks, fat-reduced meat products, meat substitutes/vegetarian products, gluten-free products, desserts, non-dairy egg substitutes, coffee substitutes, liquid seasonings




R



14. Molluscs and products made from them

These include snails, abalone, octopus, cephalopods such as squid, all mussels (clams, scallops, blue mussels), oysters

In which products/foods do these, for example, occur?
(Asian) spice pastes, oyster sauce, paella, soups (bouillabaisse), sauces, marinades, gourmet salads, wine, vinegar, cuttlefish, black noodles, surimi, sashimi

(*) and products made from the latter, in so far as the procedure that they have gone through probably does not increase the allergenicity that has been determined by the EFSA for the corresponding product from which it has been made.

Literature:
Official Journal of the European Union (EU): Regulation(EU) No. 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council – website (Status: 13 January, 2015)